SYSTEMS NEUROSCIENCE N623 - Week 1
Introduction: The Neural Basis of Cognition and the Neocortex
Nobel of the Week - September 6Brief biographies of Ramon y Cajal and Camillo Golgi
(Pay particular attention to the controversy surrounding the Neuron Doctrine).
Life and Discoveries of Santiago Ramon y Cajal, from NobelPrize.Org (Cajal's Nobel Lecture) S. Ramon y Cajal, R.G. Harrison, and the Beginnings of Neuroembryology, Viktor Hamburger (1980), in Perspectives in Biology and Medicine 23: 600-616. Life and Discoveries of Camillo Golgi, from NobelPrize.Org (Golgi's Nobel Lecture)
Introductory Readings for discussion on September 6.
Kandel, Schwartz, Jessell, Siegelbaum and Huspeth, 5th ed. Chapters 1, 15-21, or... Kandel, Schwartz, Jessell, 4th ed. Chapters 1, 17-21.
Readings for discussion on September 11.
Brodmann's Localisation in the Cerebral Cortex Kaas, JH (1987) The Organization of Neocortex in Mammals: Implications for Theories of Brain Function. Ann Rev Psych 38: 129-151. Kaas, JH (1997) Topographic maps are fundamental to sensory processing. Brain Res Bull, 44(2), 107-112. Karten, HJ (1997) Evolutionary developmental biology meets the brain: The origins of mammalian cortex. PNAS 94: 2800-2804. Sur, M, Garraghty, P and Roe, AW (1988) Experimentally induced visual projections into auditory thalamus and cortex. Science 242: 1437-1441.
Additional Optional Readings.
Sharma, J., Angelucci, A. and Sur, M. (2000) Induction of visual orientation modules in auditory cortex. Nature 404:841-847. Kaas, JH (1995) The evolution of isocortex. Brain Behav Evol, 46(4-5), 187-96. Sincich LC, Adams DL, Horton JC. (2003) Complete flatmounting of the macaque cerebral cortex. Vis Neurosci 20: 663-86. Clark, DA, Mitra, PP and Wang, SSH (2001) Scalable architecture in mammalian brains, Nature 411: 189-193. (Commentary by Kaas and Collins) Kaas, JH (2002) How do features of sensory representations develop ? BioEssays 24: 334-343. Aboitiz, F, Montiel, J and Lopez, J (2002) Critical steps in the early evolution of the isocortex. Insights from developmental biology Braz J Med Biol Res, 35(12) 1455-1472. Life and Discoveries of Sir John Eccles, from NobelPrize.Org (Eccles' Nobel Lecture) Jones, EG, History of cortical cytology (1984) in Cerebral Cortex, eds. Jones EG, Peters, A, 1:1-32. Eccles, JC, The Cerebral Neocortex: A theory of its operation (1984) in Cerebral Cortex, eds. Jones EG, Peters, A, 2:1-36 (skim over).
A few words about the Cerebral Cortex (from Wikipedia...)Based on the differencies in lamination the cerebral cortex can be classified into two major groups:
* Isocortex (homotypical cortex), the part of the cortex with six layers.
* Allocortex (heterotypical cortex) with variable number of layers, e.g., olfactory cortex and hippocampus.
Auxiliary classes are:
* Mesocortex, classification between isocortex and allocortex where layers 2, 3 and 4 are merged.
* Proisocortex, Brodmann areas 24, 25, 32.
* Periallocortex is cortical areas adjacent to allocortex.
Based on supposed developmental differencies the following classification also appears:
* Neocortex that corresponds to isocortex.
In addition, cortex may be classified on the basis of gross topographical conventions into the following:
* Temporal Cortex
* Parietal Cortex
* Frontal Cortex
* Occipital Cortex
* Limbic Cortex
* Insular Cortex
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